Values of Biodiversity, Types and its Role
8 Main Values of Biodiversity – Explained! 1. Environmental Value. The environmental value of biodiversity can be found by examining each ecosystem process and 2. Social Value. The social value of biodiversity includes aesthetic, recreational, cultural and spiritual values. To 3. Ecosystem. One of the most rapidly growing values of biodiversity in wild ecosystems is related to tourism. Worldwide receipts from international tourism in totaled $ billion (WCMC ), and domestic tourism is believed to be as much as 10 times higher. How much of the tourist trade is attracted specifically by biodiversity is difficult to tell.
By continuing to browse this Website, you consent to the use of these cookies. He specialized in resource and environmental economics and policy in general and groundwater resource economics and policy in particular and authored the book - Water Resource Economics published by Springer, He also specializes in Agricultural Economics, Production Economics, valuation of externalities biodiverskty role of sacred groves in natural resource conservation.
Whar is diversity of species, of genetic variations within one species, and of ecosystems. About 40 per cent of the global economy is based on biological products and processes. Poor and those living in areas of low agricultural productivity, depend heavily on genetic diversity of the environment.
Agricultural biodiversity is valuable to farmers for productivity, risk minimization, attenuation of shocks, insurance provision against volatile and imperfect markets, resistance and resilience of ecosystems and social and cultural values. Here, cost of substitute if any, can be approximately taken as a value of the agri biodiversity. However, substitute may not be a perfect substitute, and accordingly this approach also suffers from limitations.
Valuing seeds. Seed production of vegetables, flowers, fruits, is an expensive venture. The Ranibennur-Haveri area is involved in commercial biodiversjty production. Due to non-transparency, the valuds of seed material is either not available or disclosed and biodiversiy valuation.
Commercial utilization refers to valuss uses of biological resources as drugs, industrial enzymes, food flavors, fragrance, cosmetics, emulsifiers, oleoresins, colors, extracts and genes used for improving crops and livestock through genetic intervention, but does not include conventional whaf or traditional practices in use in agriculture, horticulture, poultry, dairy farming, animal husbandry or bee keeping.
Seeds are produced in both public sector and private sector in agriculture and the value differs. The seeds from public research — are usually on food crops while the seed sector -from private research is on vegetables, fruits with commercial intent. Simarouba glauca which has been found to be an effective cure for cancer by Prof Shyamasundar Biodiversith and Prof Shantha Joshi of UAS GKVK by curing numerous cancer patients at different stages, the value of the plant is hardly understood or appreciated ars the market.
While the allopathic cure for cancer costs lakhs and lakhs, Prof Joshi treatment may not even cost 10 percent of the cost of allopathy. Similarly, the case of Sida cordifolia for curing vocal chord paralysis, paralysis and Terminalia arjuna in curing blood pressure, the total comparable cost in allopathy considering the side effects, can not only improve the life style of the patient, but also avoid unnecessary unintended side effects of allopathy.
This shows asymmetric information about even use values of biodiversity and hence associated market imperfections. Similarly, Garcinia cambogia has hydroxy citric acid addressing obesity issues while market may not recognize such immense benefits. This value may be reflected in international price, since for domestic consumers obesity may not be an issue.
The market is wider for mangoes than for jamun Nerale for vallues curewider for oranges than for Amla rich in Vit Cwider for jackfruit than for jackfruit seeds or digestionwide for jamun, but not as wide as for jamun seeds diabetic cure. If one kg of oranges is Rs.
Similarly for Jamoon jambu phala the price ranges from Rs. However, the medicinal properties of Jamoon are par excellence compared with Mango. Valuation at market prices, economic prices kf natural resource values. The crop protection including pesticides, fertilizers, pest resistance varieties are research with commercial intent, including technologies such as Bt cotton. The valuation at the heart wants what it wants mp3 prices includes subsidies offered on fertilizers and plant protection chemicals.
The valuation at economic prices excludes the subsidies offered. The valuation considering GHG emissions will add the cost of GHG emissions from crop varieties especially irrigated crops. The valuation considering the nitrogen fixation in leguminous crops, will need to consider the value of nitrogen fixed. Existence value of Deva kadu in Biodiversiy coffee. In Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada, farmers maintain biodiversity on their farms dominated by arecanut cropping system influenced by Nagabanas.
Market prices often ignore value of shade coffee in India which adds huge ecological value, enriches biodiversity and adds to sustainability. Indian coffee what to cook on an electric griddle need to market their coffee as vlaues coffee valuing their efforts in conserving devara kadu, shade trees, biodiversity, the tradition of Iyen mane, Karona kadu, kaimada, which all form the coffee cultivation culture.
For agribiodiversity, the use values dominate and are largely assumed to be reflected in market price. However, market price does not how to can spaghetti squash all use values, let apart non-use values, due to market failure. Therefore market pricing alone will not and can not offer justice to the hard work of conservators, gatherers.
Thus, the need to revise, restructure, rework the access and benefit sharing in agribiodiversity considering total economic value. Especially the value of Simarouba glauca, currently used by Prof Shyamasundar Joshi lf Prof Biodicersity Joshi in curing cancer of all types in different stages successfully. Biodiversigy court must stop conversion of places of worship. Why no one wants Mamata Banerjee to whaf this time. The price of lowering our guard: Why this Covid catastrophe biodivwrsity upon us, and what we need to do now.
Can India allow Crypto currency — Bitcoin biodiversiyy Rupee? For high quality Universities: Academics value academic freedom. They must have a central role in university governance. Why Cong must lead the charge on abolishing sedition law. Interested in blogging for timesofindia.
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Accept Reject. Update Consent. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email. Valuing seeds Seed production of vegetables, flowers, fruits, is an expensive venture. Does Market price reflect true economic value of phytomedicines?
Valuation at market prices, economic prices and natural resource values The crop protection including pesticides, fertilizers, pest resistance varieties are research with commercial intent, including technologies such as Bt cotton. Implications For agribiodiversity, the use values dominate and are largely assumed to be reflected in market price. Top Comment Chandrakanth Mysore 41 days ago. Please note: TOI will have complete discretion to select bloggers TOI's decision in this regard will be final There's no remuneration for blogging TOI reserves the right to edit all blogs.
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Types of Biodiversity
Aug 24, · Biodiversity Values: 6 Major Values of Biodiversity – Explained! Article Shared by. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light on the six major values of biodiversity. The six major values are: (a) Total Environmental Value (TEnV), (b) Primary Value (PV), (c) Total Economic Value (TEV), (d) Use Value (UV), (e) Direct Use Value (DUV), (f) Indirect Use Value (IUV), and (g) Ethical and Aesthetic Values. Also, what are the six values of biodiversity? The six major values are: (a) Total Environmental Value (TEnV), (b) Primary Value (PV), (c) Total Economic Value (TEV), (d) Use Value (UV), (e) Direct Use Value (DUV), (f) Indirect Use Value (IUV), and (g) Ethical and Aesthetic Values. Values of biodiversity which are marketable could benefit communities, such as income from Non- Wood Forest Products trade including fuel wood, hunting and trade in bushmeat or through benefit sharing schemes based on eco-tourism and trophy hunting revenues.
Some of the major values of biodiversity are as follows: 1. Environmental Value 2. Social Value 3. Ecosystem Services 4. Economic Value 5. Consumptive use value 6. Productive Use Value 7. Ethical and Moral Value 8. Aesthetic Value.
Biodiversity is the most precious gift of nature mankind is blessed with. As all the organisms in an ecosystem are interlinked and interdependent, the value of biodiversity in the life of all the organisms including humans is enormous.
Firstly, biodiversity is directly used as a source for food, fibre, fuel and other extractable resources. Secondly, biodiversity plays an important role in ecosystem processes providing the regulating, cultural and supporting services. For example, vegetation cover protects the soil from erosion by binding soil particles and minimizing the effects of water runoff. Likewise, cultivation of crops is to a large extent dependent on the availability of pollinating insects.
Biodiversity has a fundamental value to humans because we are so dependent on it for our cultural, economic, and environmental well-being. Elements of biodiversity can contribute to cultural identity, and many ecosystem characteristics are frequently incorporated into cultural traditions.
Other facts of human well-being, such as health and economic and political security, can influence the value of biodiversity. These include potential sources of new foods, medicines, and energy which can further fuel economic activity, as well as a healthier population. Biodiversity has proven to hold enormous value when adapted for use in health, agricultural, or industrial applications.
The health and diversity of ecosystems can have a significant effect on the overall stability of nearby communities. The environmental value of biodiversity can be found by examining each ecosystem process and identifying the ecosystem services that result.
For instance, in wetlands the vegetation captures water- carried sediment and the soil organisms break down a range of nutrients and pollutants washed into the area. These processes provide the ecosystem service of purifying water. Wetlands also act as spawning and nursery grounds for some fish and provide a refuge for animals in times of drought. Some ecosystem services are easy to overlook until the underlying process is impaired.
For instance, dry-land salinity has emerged as a problem following sustained clearance of deep rooted perennial plants over wide areas. Water tables have raised carrying dissolved salts which then concentrate in the soil. Forests regulate the amount of carbon dioxide in the air by releasing oxygen as a by-product during photosynthesis, and control rainfall and soil erosion.
The social value of biodiversity includes aesthetic, recreational, cultural and spiritual values. To this can be added health benefits resulting from recreational and other activities.
While traditional societies which had a small population and required less resources had preserved their biodiversity as a life supporting resource, modern man has rapidly depleted it even to the extent of leading to the irrecoverable loss due to extinction of several species.
Thus apart from the local use or sale of products of biodiversity there is the social aspect in which more and more resources are used by affluent societies. The biodiversity has to a great extent been preserved by traditional societies that valued it as a resource and appreciated that its depletion would be a great loss to their society.
There can be marked differences in landscape and biodiversity preferences according to age, socioeconomic factors and cultural influences. The lifestyle of the ancient people was closely interwoven with their surroundings.
The life of the indigenous people in many parts of the world still revolves around the forests and environment, even in these modern times, many of them still live in the forests and meet their daily requirements from their surroundings. The biodiversity in different parts of the world has been largely preserved by the traditional societies. Since the indigenous people always protect the forests for their own benefit. In ancient times, especially in India, the environment in totally i.
Trees like Peepal, Banyan and Tulsi are still worshipped. Ladies offering water to Tulsi daily is considered good and there are festivals when ladies tie sacred threads around Peepal and Banyan trees and pray for the welfare of their families. These services also support human needs and activities such as intensely managed production ecosystems.
The maintenance of fresh water quality by vegetation slowing run off, trapping sediment and removing nutrients and by soil organisms breaking down pollutants;. The provision of foods such as fish, pastures for cattle and sheep, timber, fire wood and harvested wildlife such as kangaroos and native cut flowers;.
The provision of native species and genes used in industry research and development, for instance, in traditional breeding and biotechnology applications in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, mariculture, pharmacy, chemicals production and bioremediation;.
Pollination of agricultural crops, forest trees and native flowering plants by native insects, birds and other creatures;. Breakdown of pollutants by micro-organisms in soil and aquatic ecosystems and sequestration of heavy metals in marine and fresh water sediments;. Greenhouse gas reduction by, for instance, sequestering atmospheric carbon in wood and marine calcium carbonate deposits;. Maintenance of habitats that are attractive to humans for recreation, tourism and cultural activities and that has spiritual importance.
The economic potential of biodiversity is immense in terms of food, fodder, medicinal, ethical and social values. Biodiversity forms the major resource for different industries, which govern the world economy. The major fuel sources of the world including wood and fossil fuels have their origin due to biodiversity.
Many important chemicals have their origin from the diverse flora and fauna, used in various industries. This is related to natural products that are used directly for food, fodder, timber, fuel wood etc.
Humans use at least 40, species of plants and animals on a daily basis. Many people around the world still depend on wild species for most of their needs like food, shelter and clothing. The tribal people are completely dependent on the forests for their daily needs. This is assigned to products that are commercially harvested and marketed. Almost all the present date agricultural crops have originated from wild varieties. The biotechnologists continuously use the wild species of plants for developing new, better yielding and disease resistant varieties.
Biodiversity represents the original stock from which new varieties are being developed. Ethical values related to biodiversity conservation are based on the importance of protecting all forms of life. All forms of life have the right to exist on earth. Morality and ethics teach us to preserve all forms of life and not to harm any organism unnecessarily. Some people take pleasure in the hunting of animals. People also sometimes degrade and pollute the environment by their unethical actions.
The beauty of our planet is because of biodiversity, which otherwise would have resembled other barren planets dotted around the universe. Biological diversity adds to the quality of life and provides some of the most beautiful aspects of our existence. Biodiversity is responsible for the beauty of a landscape. People go far off places to enjoy the natural surroundings and wildlife. This type of tourism is referred to as eco-tourism, which has now become a major source of income in many countries.
In many societies, the diversity of flora and fauna has become a part of the traditions and culture of the region and has added to the aesthetic values of the place. You must be logged in to post a comment. Biodiversity Hotspots: Meaning and Hotspots found in India. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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